Proletarian internationalism is a necessary condition for the fight with the bourgeoisie

Ingrars Burlaks, Secretary of the Political Council of Socialist Party of Latvia (SPL)

Nationalism, as defined structured ideology emerged in the nineteenth century and, along with liberal theories of the period, for a long time developed a certain bond with them as a factor militating against the remnants of feudal relations. With the development of Marxism inevitably the question arose about the attitude to this, quite popular for a number of political and historical reasons, and ideology. National issue devoted a lot of the works of Marx, Engels and Lenin. Concentrated result of this attitude was expressed in the famous slogan "Workers of all countries unite!".

However, the Great October Revolution and the post-revolutionary struggle showed that the ideology of nationalism in the minds and moods of the masses underestimated the revolutionaries, and this, together with the armed resistance to national and international capital, then led to the defeat of the working class in countries such as Finland, Latvia, Poland. And then, amid the global capitalism crisis contributed to the rise to power of fascist and national socialist parties in Italy and Germany and the establishment of fascist dictatorships in several countries in Europe.

That surge of nationalism has become one of the main reasons for the destruction of the first and most powerful socialist state - the USSR.

It is nationalism, and today is a major obstacle cohesion and solidarity among workers in several countries of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

And there is good reason to believe that to nationalism as a universal tool to combat the revolutionary movement may turn the bourgeois governments of many countries, so today who boast of their political correctness, multiculturalism, and other liberal values.

The historical foundation of internationalism SPL (1904-1906)

In June 1904 in Riga hosted the first congress of the Latvian Social Democratic Labour Party (LSDLP), "the ideological and legal successor of which is the SPL" [1]. Since its founding, the militant party of the proletariat Latvian formed on the solid basis of proletarian internationalism, led a constant struggle against bourgeois nationalism.

The bloody events of January 9, 1905, marked the beginning of the bourgeois-democratic revolution, served as the beginning of the first mass of the working people of Latvia, a manifestation of international solidarity. CC LSDLP appealed to the workers: "Now that the snow bridge in St. Petersburg have the blood of our comrades - a disgrace to work and shed sweat for the benefit of the exploiters. At this important moment in our duty, the duty of all workers to quit work and join the St. Petersburg comrades! We declare a general strike "[2]. Experience of joint international struggle during the revolution, was one of the key factors that dealt a crushing blow to the prevailing party in this position of the Federalist, "a federalist form of opportunism" [3] In March 1906, in "Tactical Platform for the Unity Congress RSDLP " Lenin pointed out: "... it should take the most energetic measures for the early fusion of all national social democratic parties in Russia in a single Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party .." [4]. Held on Leninist principles of association with LSDLP RSDLP in accordance with the "Project environment combining the Latvian Social Democratic Labour Party with RSDLP", which was adopted at the IV Party Congress. The question of merger was decided at the III Congress LSDLP, and in July 1906 LSDLP became the territorial organization of RSDLP, was called Social Democracy of the Latvian Area (SDLA).

Revolutionary experience: winning and losing (1914-1920)

By the beginning of World War SDLA firmly stood on Lenin's position, acting under the slogan of turning the imperialist war into civil war.

In 1915, at the initiative of local national bourgeoisie, who tried to defend their class interests and oust the German bourgeoisie and the nobility of the working of economic and political positions in Latvia, have established national armed forces, Latvian infantry units.

After the February Revolution of 1917, the Latvian capitalists had hoped that the national infantry units will stand under the banner of bourgeois nationalism and separatism. However, this did not happen. Throughout the war waged SDLA constant agitation in parts of the rifle, explaining the Marxist formulation of the national question, defended internationalist position rallying workers. In May 1917 a congress of the Latvian Riflemen, which adopted a resolution proposed by the Central Committee of the SDLA, attested the need for fraternizing with German soldiers, the need to struggle with the capitalists of all countries, as well as the congress, said: "Our slogan is to call and now the revolutionary democracy, the entire Power to the Soviets of Workers, Soldiers and Peasants' Deputies [5]. The Congress marked the appearance of red Latvian riflemen, soldiers loyal to the revolution.

A decisive rebuff to separatism was given and at the V Congress of the Latvian Social Democracy (LSD) (as of July 1917 became known SDLA). Congress emphasized that "as long as the final word in public life and the individual units do not belong to the proletariat, until all political and economic isolation retards ... development is beneficial to the bourgeoisie hinders international unification of the proletariat in the struggle for socialism" [6] October 16th extraordinary conference LSD agreed: "... the proletariat of Latvia should maintain the closest possible union with the revolutionary workers of Petrograd and Moscow, setting himself the task of all, by all means, support the struggle of the Russian proletariat for power “. [7]

As soon as the Latvian workers learned of the victory of the armed uprising in Petrograd, the Soviets, in the unoccupied part of Latvia by the German army, began to take power into their own hands. In the elections in the All-Russian Constituent Assembly for candidates of the Bolsheviks in Livonia, voted 72% of voters. In the Latvian infantry regiments for the candidates of the Bolshevik Party, in which the first list was stamped the name of the V.I. Lenin, voted 96.5% of voters. [8]

It should be noted that by mid-February 1918 its international duty in the territory of Soviet Russia were about 5.5 thousand red Latvian riflemen, including the 6th Regiment of Tukums, who was in possession of the Soviet government, parts of which guarded the Smolny (and later the Kremlin .) On the non-occupied territory of Latvia at the time were 9.5 thousand archers. However, the end of February the entire territory of Latvia was occupied by German troops. Again, the call of the Central Committee of LSD to decide revolutionary direction, "... Latvian Riflemen do not have to lay down their arms and surrender to militarism in Germany, and the need to join the proletarian army of Russia. "[9] Russia withdrew all, without exception, the Latvian infantry units. By April Latvian Soviet Infantry Division was formed as one of the first national groups of young Soviet Republic.

In November 1918, after the revolution in Germany, the Soviet government annulled the Brest Treaty. In Latvia there was the workers hope to conquer the Soviet government, the construction of the first State of workers and peasants.

It is understood and imperialists of the Entente and the USA. With their direct participation ("... the decisive factor was the hatred of Bolshevism in England" [10]) in the occupied German parts of Latvia, on November 18 was declared the establishment of the bourgeois republic of Latvia, was the formation of the interim government, the so-called People's Council, composed of included all the then-current bourgeois and petty-bourgeois parties.

Illegal XVII Conference LSD (november 18- 19) decided to prepare an armed uprising, expulsion from Latvia of German troops and the overthrow of the bourgeois government. In a resolution on the national question, the Congress stated: "The proletariat of Latvia does not have anything to do with bourgeois nationalism .... bourgeois nationalism and the desire to bourgeois independent Latvia is a means of struggle with the proletariat of Latvia" [11]

Invaluable contribution to Soviet Russia was the victory of the revolution in Latvia. In defeating the nationalists Latvian Rifle Division, part of the West and helped the VII Army. January 3, 1919 Riga workers staged an armed uprising and took power in their hands.

January 13, 1919, Latvian I Congress of the Soviets was opened in Riga, which adopted the first constitution of Soviet Latvia, marks the victory of the revolution in Latvia. Held in March VI congress of LSD renamed party into the Communist Party of Latvia.

However, the Soviet regime in Latvia was able to survive for at least a year, since the combined forces attacked the Latvian White Guards, German barons, the Anglo-American imperialists. However, the Latvian bourgeoisie managed to captivate a large group of people, especially artisans, peasants, workers, and some idea of national sovereignty, "their" state. The troops of the Soviet government began to suffer defeat, retreat, and by early 1920 it was forced to declare the dissolution. CPL has gone underground and has announced its entry into the Comintern as an independent section.

From the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie to the dictatorship of the proletariat (1920-1940)

During the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie underground CPL led an active struggle for the organization of working people to struggle for their legitimate rights. Particularly active CPL performed in the organization and conduct of strikes and demonstrations. The communists used the opportunity to conduct legal work in the Left trade unions and social workers' organizations. In elections to the Parliament III (1928), the communists were able to form a unit "Workers and peasantry", which got 6 seats (a total of 100 deputies in the parliament) and formed the “Workers and Peasants” faction. It was a great achievement. Communist deputies actively used the parliamentary rostrum to promote their views. They paid great attention to explaining the danger of working to strengthen and fascist tendencies of bourgeois nationalism, constantly pointed to the example of living for workers in the USSR. The position of the CPL, markedly enhanced the global crisis of the capitalist system. In elections to the Parliament IV (1931) communists won 7 seats. Along with this, the 1931-1933 year across the country were led by the CPL, a strike of workers and the unemployed demonstrations. There was strong aggravation of class struggle in the past 10 years. Realizing this, the reactionary bourgeois circles went on to commit a coup and the establishment of a fascist dictatorship, headed by K. Ulmanis. The Parliament was dissolved, and the worker-peasant fraction arrested. His work ended the same way all the workers and trade union organizations.

This dictatorship, along with the traditional right-conservative ideology, characteristic of many regimes then Europe, had a pronounced nationalist component. It was during this period accounts for the majority of nationalist and anti-communist actions of bourgeois power. It is no accident during the 1933-1940 dictatorship of the bourgeoisie's still seems a model for the Latvian radical nationalists and neo-Nazis.

In these circumstances, the CPL to build its tactics from the need to create a unified Anti-Fascist People's Front. At the initiative of the CPL, a contract was concluded with the Socialist Workers 'and Peasants' Party of Latvia (established on the basis of left-wing Social Democratic Party), as well as created the Union of Working Youth in Latvia (on the basis of merging the Young Communist League and the Union of Socialist Youth of Latvia). Its international duty at the call of the CPL, performed many working people of Latvia, Spain, in the international brigades ..

October 5, 1939 between Latvia and the USSR signed a treaty of mutual assistance in the country were placed 25 thousand Soviet troops. However, Ulmanis, repeatedly violated the signed agreement, and June 16, 1940 the Soviet government awarded the Latvian ambassador a note, which called attention to the breach of contract, required to form a government, which would ensure the implementation of the previously established requirements and place in Latvia for an additional part of the Red Army.

June 17, the Red Army entered Latvia. This was a great influence on the further revolutionary developments, however, this influence was not decisive, as trying to present the status of the bourgeois historians. In the days that followed the revolution, not been any evidence of the violation by the Red Army sovereignty Latvia. It is working people of Latvia, on the skin known the fact that the "nation state" their "own" bourgeoisie, is no different from any other exploitative state, were the real driving force for revolutionary change.

Despite the relatively small size, has not yet recovered from the dictatorial regime of repression Ulmanis CPL broadest proletarian demonstrations held 17-21 June, demanding the resignation of the old government and the formation of a new democratic, and the legalization of the Communist Party, the release of political prisoners.

The newly formed People's Government (in its composition was not the communists) has announced the election of a new People's Parliament. At a July 1940 election, for the "Block of the working people of Latvia", uniting the communists and non-party votes 97.8% of voters. Already on July 21 in a grand demonstration of 100,000 workers required to resolve the issue of Latvia's accession to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. August 5 Supreme Council adopted a decision on acceptance of Latvia into the USSR.

Latvian SSR working people began a peaceful, creative labor. However, he was interrupted by the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War.

Trial by Fire (1941-1945)

World War II was a time test of strength not only of the socialist economy, but also the forces of proletarian internationalism of the Soviet people. Plans for the Nazis that the outbreak of war in the Soviet republics would break out of national separatist demonstrations against Soviet power and the multinational Soviet Union would collapse, unable to withstand the Nazi aggression and attack from within, not justified.

An example of correctness carried out while the policy for the elimination of the bourgeoisie as a class (such as power most interested in the restoration of capitalism), the beheading of nationalist "fifth columns" can also serve Latvia. The Great Patriotic War was in Latvia at the same time and the scene of fierce class struggle. Despite the fact that part of the "fifth column" was interned and relocated outside Latvia for a week before the start of the war in a country where the Soviet government won a year ago, has not been neutralized rural capitalists and the urban bourgeoisie had dreamed of the restoration of nationalized property. Again, for stupefying consciousness of workers was used bourgeois nationalism, equally lucrative local bourgeoisie and the Nazi occupiers. The hangers-Nazis and traitors to their people cultivated the idea of "the possible economic and cultural independence" [12], spreading propaganda lies about the first year of Soviet rule as a "horrible year", "purposeful genocide of the Latvian people". [13] The result of propaganda is that much of the population took part in the formation of the Legion of the Waffen SS. It must be recognized that a large proportion of villagers Latvians (especially the rich, who had large tracts of land and means of production) and has actively supported the postwar nationalist gangs.

The class character of the struggle just confirms the fact that with the Red Army retreated deep into the Soviet Union (in the bulk) workers, the Soviet and party activists, land-poor and landless peasants. Class composition formed in 1941, a voluntary 201 Latvian Rifle Division, demonstrates the forces that stood under the banner of proletarian internationalism and to defend the revolution against the most reactionary parts of the world bourgeoisie - German Fascism, "62% of workers, 29% of Soviet employees and 9% of farmers' [14]

Test of strength, "national communists" (1956-1959)

The inclusion of the Latvian SSR in a single economic complex of the fraternal family of Soviet peoples, the restoration of war-ravaged economy, industrialization began, and demanded a huge amount of mental and physical labor, and skilled Soviet party activists. For objective reasons, the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic (population in 1950. - 1.943 thousand, including in rural areas - 1.063 million [15]) could not provide itself with qualified personnel. The result was a significant increase in the mechanical growth of population. Reasonable and balanced approach to the national question in relation to arrivals from other Soviet republics to citizens (their language learning, targeted familiarity with the culture and customs of the local population, etc.) was not adopted. On the contrary, their appearance in the republic were used part of the Party and government officials for nationalist and separatist goals. "Catalyst" of so-called performance "National communists" were the decisions of the XX Congress and the beginning of the revisionist policy of "de-Stalinization." Under the guise of "preserving cultural identity," attempts were made to reduce substantially the mechanical growth of the population of the capital. At a time when Riga became one of the most industrialized cities of the USSR, there were some ideas about "the need to focus not on the development of heavy industry, production of means of production ", but light industry to meet the needs of the citizens of the republic" [16], which was actually an attempt to breach a single national economic planning, separation of the Latvian SSR from the Soviet economy.

However, the Communist Party at that stage was still able to reflect the performance of the separatists, and plenum of the CC CPL which was held in 1959 paid the ideological defeat of the leaders of the "national-communism."

Nationalism - an instrument of counter-revolution (1988-1991)

Devastating opportunistic processes, which laid the beginning of the XX Party Congress, held in mid-60s economic reforms culminated in an open counter-revolutionary restoration of capitalism in the USSR and led to the temporary defeat of the socialist world system.

Undoubtedly, one of the methods used by the counter-revolutionary forces to break up the Union State, was a petty-bourgeois nationalism, whereby pedaling separatist sentiments of many people of many Soviet republics. Pronounced these two processes in the Baltic countries, including Latvia.

Thirsty bourgeois restoration circles were well aware that the slogans of the open capitalization of the country, will not be the driving ideas of the masses, because people will not give up such achievements of Soviet power, like free medical care and education, virtually free housing, right to work and rest assured etc ., so the emphasis was placed on the national feelings of the people were presented the idea of "reducing the influence of the union center" on the outskirts of the mechanistic reduction of population growth, etc. Gradually, these slogans were replaced by more radical demands, "separation from the national economy of the USSR," "autonomy," and ultimately, "the restoration of the state which existed before 1940." However, almost none of the document did not mention that this "recovery" is nothing more than a restoration of capitalism.

Organizational forces of counterrevolution took shape in October 1988 as the Popular Front of Latvia (PFL). It should be noted that by that time there has been and ideological split in the CPL. Evidence for this is that the position of the leadership of the CPL does not interfere, and welcomed the establishment of such a structure, the other openly opposed, considering it a step toward the restoration of capitalism. A year later, at the second congress of the PFL (July-August 1989), the slogans of "democracy" and "sovereignty within the Soviet Union" were replaced by statements about the need for "complete independence of the Republic of Latvia, an exit from the USSR" [17]. It should be noted that even then were planned steps bourgeoisie de-industrialization country, the destruction of the industrial working class, united thousands of splitting the labor collectives. And it also took place under the nationalist slogans and lofty phrases about the need to preserve the native population, a decline of labor migration. Thus, the PFL's program was written: "PFL stands for, to economic development of the Latvian SSR was based only on local labor. In this regard, it is necessary to reduce the disproportionately large number of jobs in the Republic "[18]. PFL strengthened its position as a campaign for a 'national' agriculture (optional promising dismemberment of collective and private capitalist subsequent land use), as opposed to "hold on migrants industry" that appeals to the villagers, which was the dominant indigenous population. Thesis that "the PFL considers agriculture a priority, and calls for the consistent implementation of this policy" [19] was recorded in the first program of the PFL.

In April 1990 a split occurred in the CPL. Hall, which hosted the congress, 242 delegates left out of the 700 and formed the Independent CPL, which supports the PFL.

Despite the fact that the working people of Latvia, not succumbed to the nationalist rhetoric and really realize destructiveness of charting a course, trying to save the Soviet regime (in early 1989 was created by International Front of Workers (Interfront), and in May 1991, together with the CPL All-Latvia Salvation Committee, ), to defend socialism it’s failed.

After the restoration of capitalism, the bourgeoisie has continued (and does so to this day) to use nationalism to split the labor movement.

In order to consolidate their influence, the first step of accepting the power of the bourgeoisie, began to ban the organization, which has steadily pursued a policy of proletarian internationalism. Already August 24, 1991 without charge or trial was closed CPL. Ban was imposed on the communist agitation and propaganda, and the first secretary of the Communist-thrown in jail.

In addition to the destruction of large labor groups, capitalists deprived of political rights (citizenship) of all people who came to Latvia during the Soviet era, knowing full well that most of these people were and the industrial proletariat.

In parallel with these decisions, launch a massive attack on people's minds through the media, actively promoting nationalism and Russophobia. Established under the President Latvian Historians Commission began to work actively to rewrite history - the glorification of the Waffen SS legionaries and bandit groups of bourgeois nationalists, who continued to armed resistance to Soviet rule after the war. As an indisputable fact is presented "occupation" of Latvia in 1940, deliberately held back the heroic revolutionary struggle of the Latvian people with their capitalists.

All this work of bourgeois propaganda machine has led to the fact that a large part of the indigenous population, and especially his young side, had the false idea about the Soviet period in the history of Latvia, belie the idea of ​​proletarian internationalism, deeply seated in the minds of petty-bourgeois nationalism. A vivid confirmation of this are taking place under the tacit consent of official authorities, "Legionnaires 'marches', every year collecting more and more youth. Just about the level prevailing in the society, nationalism can be judged from the fact that the country's parliament in recent elections have been selected six members of a neo-fascist party "All for Latvia!", And one of the "elected representatives" - is re-elected former legionnaire SS !

It should be noted, and the fact that the problems of Russian minorities in Latvia has become one of the handles, serving the interests of the contemporary imperialist Russia. After the collapse of the Soviet Union support from Russia and if there was a, only those of the bourgeois parties, who act as "defenders of the Russian population" of the republic, with radicalization of views on inter-ethnic harmony and completely dismiss the internationalism and the class approach to understanding social processes. Not a single fact in their activities is to promote nationalist slogans such as: "The Russian are coming!".

Working in modern conditions, the Socialist Party of Latvia firmly pursues the idea of ​​proletarian internationalism, brotherhood and friendship. SPL explains the processes taking place not from the standpoint of the interests of any nationality, but the interests of the class, explaining to the workers that the historical experience of the departure from the principles of proletarian internationalism is to power the bourgeoisie and the exploitation of workers, breaks the united front of workers' struggle for liberation from the bondage of the capital!

The last refuge of the capital

As often happened in history, in crises, with the threat of a revolutionary situation, the capital does not shun the most despicable methods of preserving their power: the uses against the people of overt violence, unleashing military conflicts and world wars. However, with the advent of the second half of the twentieth century weapons of mass destruction, the war has become very unsafe for international capital - in the case of turning the conflict into a nuclear, on the ground was no place where its representatives were able to secure a safe existence. In addition, with the advent of socialism and the struggle of workers in capitalist countries for their rights, the bourgeoisie was forced to make known the humanization of social and economic relations. With the collapse of the socialist system in need of such a humane disappeared, but just to deprive workers of their achievements can not - it would cause a social explosion. Therefore, in the last decade is the gradual dismantling them under the guise of "measures to overcome the crisis", "stabilizing the financial system" or "improving credit rating."

However, such actions cause protests by workers, often grow into mass demonstrations organized by leftist parties and trade unions. To counteract this disturbance without the use of open violence, the bourgeois governments should direct masses on some other sites and areas. It seems that, as such, will again be used on a large scale inter-ethnic relations and nationalism and racism as an ideological base.

Very characteristic in this respect not only the facts of the growing influence of the extreme right and neo-Nazi parties in several European countries, but also, for example, public recognition of the "collapse of the policy of multiculturalism," the leadership of a country like Germany. This is, in fact, hidden so far, but a definite abandonment of the principles declared in the sphere of interethnic relations in the second half of the twentieth century.

In this case the still of the EU policy of multiculturalism, political correctness, in fact, ethnicity is inefficient and sometimes openly travesty. In fact, this very policy also provokes the creation of situations in different countries, aimed at a possible domestic standoff.

Reasons for the ideology of nationalism is increasingly widely used bourgeoisie in the struggle to preserve their power, are seen as follows:

1. Ease of use. As the events in the former socialist countries, including Latvia, it does not require any serious arguments, no long preparation. It all comes down to a simple notion of "we do not like them, so they are strangers. But others - it's enemies. " And yesterday's colleagues, fellow party members, neighbors, become the irreconcilable enemies, ready if not an ethnic pogrom, then the loss of "foreign" civil rights.

2. Versatility. There is no country where it was impossible to "roll out" the situation with such an ideology. Many countries are multinational or have been established in recent history. Or become established in the migration of labor from abroad, or some historical events. Even more or less mono-countries have their own people abroad and the situation they can be influenced by the slogan of "protection of compatriots abroad."

3. Cumulative effect. If inadequate or ethnic factors may easily revive the historical territorial claims, facts or myths about occupation, migration of peoples, migration, etc.

An example is indicative of Latvia by the fact that nationalism is used as an infallible weapon, not only during the destruction of the Soviet Union, but all following time until the present day. At the same time the Latvian authorities used such forms and methods of ethnic politics, which would be completely unthinkable in western Europe or the USA. Government and politics of the EU countries, including representatives of the Social Democrats and other political forces, calling themselves the "Left", mercilessly critical of other states to ban gay parades or non-human animals, calmly looked at depriving hundreds of thousands of civil rights, outright protectionalism ethnic or heroes of the Nazis during the Second world War.

This is underlined by interference shows that Latvia and other countries of the former socialist bloc, the international capital actually used as a kind of "ground" for future mining methods for the transfer of the revolutionary energy of the masses from the sphere of social and class struggle in the sphere of internal and external ethnic conflicts. This is a very disturbing trend, and do not pay attention to it would be inexcusable complacency. Nationalism is almost always and everywhere closely adjacent to the anti-communism and have a tendency to turn into a neo-Nazi and neo-fascist forms, as well as racism

However, the situation in Latvia shows that actually confront nationalism by liberal cosmopolitan ideas or purely human rights activities, as well as "counter-nationalism" is impossible. The political forces that tried to do it, or lost, or abandoned their ideas in favor of any openly bourgeois ideology.

Really confront as nationalism and cosmopolitanism, the various negative consequences of capitalist globalization can only politics and ideology of conscious internationalism of the working class, aimed at fundamental revolutionary transformation of society.

[1] Program SPL, p. 4

[2] Flyers of the Social-Democratic organizations in Latvia during the first Russian revolution. Riga., 1956, p.26.

[3] Joseph Stalin "The Social Democracy of the National Question," Collected Works, vol.1., p. 55

[4] V.I. Lenin vol.10, p. 132 (translated from latv.)

[5] History of the Latvian Riflemen, 1972, Riga, p. 136.

[6] V.O. Miller, "The first sovereign state of the Latvian people", 1988, Riga, p. 40-41

[7] The Communist Party of Latvia in the 1917 October Revolution, Riga., p. 466-467.

[8] History of the Latvian SSR, v.2., p. 32 (translated from latv.)

[9] Ibid, p. 42.

[10] History of Latvia, the twentieth century, 2005., Riga, p. 106. (translated from latv.)

[11] The Communist Party of Latvia in 1918 and 1919. Documents and materials. 1958.g., Riga., P. 160-161 (translated from latv.)

[12] History of Latvia, the twentieth century, 2005., Riga, p. 247. (translated from latv.)

[13] Ibid, p. 225.

[14] The struggle of the Latvian people of World War II, 1966.g., Riga., P.108 (translation from Latin.)

[15] Latvian Soviet Encyclopedia, 1984.g., Riga., P. 117. (translated from latv.)

[16] History of Latvia, the twentieth century, 2005., Riga, p. 364. (translated from latv.)

[17] Encyclopedia of Latvia, 2007.g., 4th volume, p. 28. (translated from latv.)

[18] Our History, 1985-2005, Riga, 2007.g.., Str.126.

[19] Ibid, p.128