On Remnants of National Liberalism. Latvia in world system crisis circumstances

Victor Matjushenok, member of the editorial board of the newspaper's “Socialist of Latvia”

Even though Eastern Europe and Baltic’s countries usually are mentioned together as countries of certain “new Europe”s considering their membership in NATO and the European Union, the political and social economic situation is different in each one.

Moreover, Latvia, due to number of factors is allocated even against the neighbors as Estonia and Lithuania, let alone Poland or Czechia. Accordingly, different is the set of ideological and propaganda tools, which was and is also now, used by bourgeois regimes for power capturing and it’s holding.

Without taking in account the given factors it is difficult to receive an authentic picture, observing processes occurring in Latvia from the outside - from specificity of a political spectrum and preferences of voters on elections, to the social protest displaying factors and concrete difficulties of political work in mass.

Latvian counterrevolution: nationalistic by the form, capitalistic by the maintenance

The Soviet Union's collapse which has happened in 1991 as a result of the international capital pressure and treachery of the country leaders, had differences circumstances on territory of the USSR, quite specific, depending on the administrative status and ethnic structure of concrete region. If in Russia or Belarus in public consciousness prevailed myths and mirages of an all-democratic and market orientation, but in Latvia, as soon as the so-called Public front of Latvia (PFL) against the background of power crisis has felt the force, the screen in a kind of «socialism reform” has been rejected at once and at support of imperialism forces from the outside were the course on restoration of bourgeois Latvian republic of the example of 1920-40.

Support of restoration of bourgeois statehood which were caused by PFL propagandists, secondary to personal mercenary interest in the former proprietors, had character of original romantic “historical nostalgia” at one part of a society, and the extended that time illusions about market abundance - at another, that has allowed antisocialist forces to support demagogy about “universal values”, «democracy» and “the free market” practically till August, 1991.

The original paradox was the bourgeois Latvian republic in 1940. It was neither the sample of democracies, nor of notorious market freedom. In 1934 the prime minister of that time Karlis Ulmanis not only had made revolution, had dispersed parliament, had forbidden parties and had established military-police dictatorship, but also had developed a number of measures for economic state-administrative regulation, especially in trade and agricultural production sphere.

Preeminently these practices have yielded positive result against economic crisis of that time and that is why, even after decades, the period of bourgeois dictatorship with appreciable elements of ethnocracy remained in mass consciousness as “time of prosperity and order”.

Inclusive because of these memoirs, painted in nostalgic tone, one of the main psychological factors of capitalism restoration in Latvia is national. This specificity also has affected Latvian Comunistic party activity (LCP) during this period and has it predetermined situation complexity in the left movement up to present time.

It is quite obvious, that if PFL and other political forces, including defeatists from LCP, campaigned only for restoration of capitalist structure, they never would receive such mass support. Nevertheless the population of Latvia was quite politically educated, and the social benefits as the unemployment liquidation, free medical aid, guaranteed by the state, education, and housing, (as a matter of fact - received for esteemed decades, actually throughout a one generation life), were so notable, that people have concerned liberally-market propaganda quite skeptically.

Doubts about national feelings which by the nature belong not to rational, but to emotional sphere, has resulted not only a political disorientation of considerable part of population, but has allowed to split it by national sign, to declare by this socialism supporters as « Latvian enemies» and to give to bourgeois counterrevolution certain kind of “national-liberatory movement”.

Moreover, even now the Latvian political spectrum is divided not only by sociopolitical criterion (the right parties expressing interests of the capital and the left, expressing interests ofhired labor people), but also in relation to the ethnic question. The Latvian parties are not just liberal, conservative or social democratic, but national-liberal, national-conservative or even national-social democratic!

Apart them there are the centrist and left-centrist parties, trying to solve national problems on the basis of compromises or simply not mentioning them in their programs and Socialist party of Latvia is unique, essentially defending positions of classical Marxist internationalism.

At IV congress socialists have declared: “the Policy of a today's regime is possible because we were divided, they try to divide us by a national belonging... It done with purpose, to have divided, it is easier to manage and shut people's mouths. We are against this policy!” [1]

Deindustrialization, as a struggle method against working-class movement

One of the characteristic phenomena in the countries where was restoration of capitalist usages, where were the delay of economic development, caused by economic destruction, first of all – it’s manufacturing sector. Quite characteristic, but may be also mostly representative example of such events train became Latvia, which during Soviet time was one of most industrially developed USSR republics. Aside the inevitable recession caused by rupture of developed economic relations with other republics of the Union and the countries of socialist camp and as transition on capitalistic methods of the managing, as the obvious reason usually occur extortionate privatization’s character, initial savings of the capital by new bourgeoisie and aspiration of large European and world concerns, to take under the full control or simply liquidate economic objects of East and Central Europe and the former USSR, as possible competitors.

Meanwhile, there were many other interests, including quite specific which can be mentioned on example of Latvia. Govern elite actions, referred on destruction of manufacturing economic, were defined by set of following factors:

1. large foreign capital «order» fulfillment referred to the clearing of commodity markets and destruction of possible competitors;

2. material assets privatization by new bourgeoisie and a part of the former Soviet, also by party elite in the mercenary interests. It is a typical burglarious variant of initial capital saving;

3. liquidation of the big labor collectives, as possible base of class consolidation and sociopolitical protest;

4. realization of nationalist concept of «the ethnic state»;

5. absence of experts-professionals in management of large industrial structures among a new ruling layer.

First two factors are quite common for many countries of the former socialist camp, as to the others some explanations needed to be done. The matter is that apart from power, transport and the communication objects, supporting a normal life level essential for the XXI century, today Latvia practically haven't industrial enterprises which have kept the former importance, manufacture range and employees numbers. The majority of them, first of all in sphere of metalwork, instrument making, mechanical engineering, electrical engineers and microelectronics on which worked ten thousand people’s collectives, practically are completely destroyed in 90’s of the last century. Accept, that the situation is quite unique. The country leaders, with all negation of socialism, should understand that similar industrial defeat, puts in doubt not only country’s economic potentialities, but also the fact of its adequate existence. However, avidity and fear in front of possible social protest appeared more strongly that sense arguments and in 2004 Latvia entered the European Union with «industry» which was characterized by level of equipment and the number of workers more habitual for manufactories of the XIX century beginning: 76 percent of all operating enterprises made the micro enterprises with workers number to 9 persons and 20 percent small - 10-49 persons. [2]

The new bourgeoisie covered the class fear with the nationalist rhetoric, which was taken on arming already in capture of the power and has shown the efficiency. It has poured out in explicitation of large-scale industry, as spheres “alien to mentality of the Latvian people”, “imposed from the outside” and not having prospect in the ethnic state accordingly.

In program PFL of 1989 such approach to economic problems deliberating “PFL considers, that... In case of need it is necessary to plan a reshaping or even closing of the separate enterprises”. [3] As a result of their board it has turned out, that this strange “necessity” has concerned all industrial enterprises...

Here it is necessary to explain that national structure of city dwellers and, in particular, busy in the industry, essentially differed from other spheres - owing to a number of the historical reasons the majority of the technical and industrial personnel made not Latvians. Thus their part (but not everyone as ideologists of the right nationalists insisted), have arrived to Latvia from other USSR regions in 50-80th of the last century. For example, in 1976-80 the share of a mechanical gain in the general gain of urban population was 71 percent, and in 1981-82 - 67 percent. [4]

This fact after 1991 has worked, as so-called “legislative reason” of arrivals and even their descendants deprivation (!) of the civil rights, equating their position to the illegal aliens status. Though the people who have arrived to live in Latvia didn't brake any laws, operating that time, and moved within administrative territory of one country - the USSR. Using similar demagogy and speculating on national feelings, ruling politicians for the sake of power preservation could impose voters crazy idea of national development danger in a case of existence in country people of other language and an ethnic accessory and necessity of industrial base destruction for stimulation of their departure from Latvia. Though the majority of not Latvians working in the industry have not left the country (they associated the life with Latvia, which for many of them was the unique native land - third so-called. “Aliens” in general were born in Latvia) and even today, 18 years later. In this country are living over 300 thousand aliens, the basic sociopolitical purposes the right nationalists, thus, have reached unfortunately. Under nationalism cover has taken place not only social stratification, but also mass loss of class solidarity, class consciousness, destroyed industrial giants workers became small dealers, handicraftsmen, in agrarian sector representatives of administration of the large collective agricultural enterprises became owners of the big allotments and farms, agricultural workers melted to a primitive natural country economy, a part of workers because of economic chaos, simply degraded, as valuable society members. Characteristic stroke: despite of serious social and economic difficulties periods and shocking indicators of unemployment at miserly social guarantees, in Latvia after 1991 there was NO strike in industry sphere.

Failed “Baltic tiger” Jump

Thus it is necessary to notice, that in the beginning of 90's new structures and attributes of statehood creation successes have been reached quite quickly. Successes were appreciably, formal, external, demonstrative-propagandist, but, nevertheless, created performance illusion by right-nationalist political forces of the undertaken obligations. Therefore, despite economic disorder and quite heavy financial condition of considerable population part, social situation were quite stable. It can be explained by a number of specific factors.

First of all - the emotional growth, which has resulted restoration of the state independence. More precisely, in this plan we can talk only about reсeiving formal sovereignty, at frank dictatorship and a manipulation by local authorities from the outside, from the international capital, but at level of household consciousness it did not differ. . If for citizens of Russia for example, the period of 90's stand for not only economic difficulties, material deprivations, but also the moral humiliations connected with disorder of old statehood and inability of new to carry out the external and internal functions. For Latvians - opposite it was time of certain creation: new structures of the power and management, the monetary system, police, army, etc. Thus, apart from moral factor, there was also a material one: in collapse period of the industry and the large agricultural enterprises, budgetary sphere (and first of all - public service) gave not only the stable salary, but also a maximum possible at that time, social guarantees, prospect of personal self-realization, the state career. It is necessary to add political and, partly, economic support of capitalist system restoration from the international imperialism and successful use of “the geographical position rent” and the powerful infrastructure created in the Soviet times in the form of transport highways, pipelines and seaports. During socialist economic total plunder “inheritance” through Latvia passed commodity-source of raw materials priced at billions dollars and the same financial streams leaving minimum, but nevertheless rather significant for small country, tax and other receipts. Thus transit and capital export often had doubtful origin, even from the point of view of new, market laws, that also influenced behavior of local politicians and the characteristic of the political parties serving interests of new bourgeoisie. Except the moments actually of corruption, there was occurrence of the original centres, regions of the raised well-being in Riga, in Ventspils, Jurmala - places of transit business development, a banking capital or residing of “new rich” concentration. Accordingly, in those groups of hired workers which have been busy in the given spheres, or were engaged with service of capital owners, there were more likely petty-bourgeois, than proletarian sights and behavior type. Everything of it was understood by active people standing on Marxist positions. In 1995 at I congress SPL in special resolutions it was allocated: “the Course which is carried out by the state in the name of the higher legislature, the government and the Central Bank, leads to country degradation. The present political forces, at the power, have transformed economy into own feeding trough and convulsively solve the property problems”. [5]

But, the criticism of the sociopolitical device and the authorities actions, from socialists, in view of all the above listed factors was perceived by the majority of the population poorly, though as a whole on the country the facts of social injustice, political and ethnic descrimination were abundantly clear and the considerable mass of the people was in heavy quite position: even the official (underestimated) indicators of unemployment reached in regions of 27 percent from able-bodied population number, to 20 thousand children did not visit school, and 710 thousand inhabitants (from the population in 2,3 million!), in general have been deprived the basic civil rights and thus are debarred from the politician even at level of self-managements. Nevertheless, Socialist party of Latvia acting on a political arena in such difficult conditions, during this period even without political allies, it was possible to promote to the Latvian parliament theirs deputies, that shows presence of considerable number of supporters.

As to economy it is quite obvious, that transport and building sphere, or especially, various service objectively are auxiliary spheres serving manufacturing economy. Therefore consequences of collapse of the large industry and collective agriculture already have started to affect in the late nineties of last century. For some reasons there were problems in transit sphere, those branches and the enterprises which have remained due to service of the Intralatvian market and export to Russia tested serious pressure of strong European competitors : first of all food and light industry. For economy the rate of national currency - lat overestimated by Bank of Latvia had the extremely negative consequences . In these conditions political forces rulling in the country have taken a ply on the enlistment into NATO and EU. Except obvious this idea pushing from the international imperialism (a policy of the USA, first of all), possibility of the enlistment into EU for Latvian rights was actually rescue from full social economic and political bankruptcy. When the enlistment prospect became real, and it was necessary to convince the population (unlike the authorities, the people of Latvia perceived membership in EU with watchfulness), Minister of Finance of that time has expressed more than definitely, openly recognising, that otherwise the country waits catastrophic payment deficiency. Therefore ruling also agreed to enter actually on any, most economically, both socially and most economically unprofitable conditions and these conditions publicly were not discussed at all. SPL position, objectively estimating euro integration advantage, nevertheless, was reduced to EU definition as union of the large European capital created for maintenance, first of all, of own class interests. V.I.Lenin almost hundred years ago has stated very exact estimation to similar association of Europe: “certainly, temporal agreements between capitalists and between powers are possible. In this sense also are possible the United Europes, as the agreement of the European capitalists ... About what? Only for, pressing together socialism in Europe...” [6]

Therefore to the Latvian socialists were quite clear the political reasons which have prompted on acceptance in the European Union the countries. - their preliminary reception in NATO quite frank shows the reasons, they absolutely are not ready to it by economic criteria.

At the same time the Socialist party has tried to use contacts possibilities at EuroParliament level for an establishment more close connections with representatives of communistic and workers' parties of the European countries and adjustment with them fruitful cooperation in interests of the Latvian workers. (6) Even in 2000 when these themes only have started to be discussed actively in a society, SPL has clearly defined it's attitude: “... We do not see economic and political expediency of the enlistment of Latvia in the European Union. Having entered EU, Latvia will lose the most part of the independence in the economic field, a policy, the culture, all national economy as a whole.” [7] From the moment of the enlistment into EU has passed five years. Even short-term consequences of impreparation of Latvia to it and frankly adventurous and irresponsible

politics of the right parties which were busy in processes of European, economic, first of all, intergation, demonstrably show rightness of a socialists position. Latvia's being in EU practically has given nothing to the people as for social security or guarantees of the civil and political rights: social guarantees system as before are weak and imperfect, political interdictions are kept in an invariance. The wild and humiliating status of aliens is kept, prosecution for political views still continues. However, monetary injections of euro structures and activity of the international capital (first of all financially-speculative) have caused splash of economical activity. Indicators of growth of gross national product have reached record of 11 percent in 2007 that has allowed propagandists of right to speak about Latvia as about «Baltic economic tiger», and the union of the right national-Liberal parties to win on parliamentary elections of 2006. Thus the real sector of economy has suffer essential costs: the sugar industry is destroyed, serious difficulties at agriculture in whole and fishing branch. Even more fatal consequences have turned out from uncontrolled activity in the country of foreign banks and provoked by them at a tacit consent of the government of a credit fever and gamble in real estate sphere. Although in XIX century Charles Marx in the work “Capital” wrote about dual character peculiar for credit system and ability: “... On the one hand to develop motive power of capitalist manufacture, enrichment on another's work operation, in system of the cleanest and most colossal passion and swindle and more and more reduce number of those of the few, which maintain public riches; on another - to make the transitive form to a new way of manufacture”. [8] Notably, negative consequences have started to be appear even before present general world crisis of capitalist system. That is not surprising completely, if to look for example at growth of an Latvian external debt:


Years, quarter, bill. LVL

2004 III

2005 III

2006 III

2007 III

2008 III

external debt (netto)







In 2008 the government of Latvia reaches arrangements with IMF, the World bank and Eurocommission about reception of credits for 7,5 billion euro till the end of 2009 (5,122 billion Lats) and the public debt total sum already more than twice will exceed the annual budget. For such small country as Latvia, in addition with actually destroyed manufacturing economy and absence of any natural export resources it means practically hopeless debt dependence and full loss of any independence. And for the people: essential material prosperity and social security letdown.

Social passivity: to leave easier, than to struggle

In the conditions of social and economic crisis, which actually lasts in Latvia from the beginning of 90's of the last century, it would be natural to expect protest moods and actions from workers on which shoulders laid and lays down the basic weight of consequences of capitalism restoration, errors and abusings of the right bourgeois parties power. However, up to events on January, 13th, 2009 (when in Riga took place skirmishes with police at attempt of power penetration into a building of parliament and local street disorders), in the country was nothing, that would be possible to call the serious social protest. SPL through the primary organizations, with newspaper “the socialist of Latvia” help, an Internet resource of party and various actions, both in election campaigns, and during the actions devoted to significant historical dates, such as on May, 1st or the holiday of the Victory over Hitlerite Germany in the World War II consistently explains to workers an essence of processes occurring in the country, their reasons and a consequence, offers decision ways. However, it is necessary to admit, that in spite of popularity of socialist idea among workers (that is expressed including quantity of voters for SPL on various elections) to achieve consolidation at least at level of social and economic requirements and increasing of class consciousness yet come to no good. The reasons of social passivity in the beginning of 90's, in capitalism restoration period, are mentioned above, as to an inert position of workers of layers working last decade, a principal cause that after the introduction of Latvia into EU to ruling political forces was possible to “export” outside a part of sharp internal social problems. Most sensitive of them in the form of unemployment, low salaries, are removed by opening of labour markets in such countries, as Ireland and the Great Britain. In Report ХI to congress SPL it has been noted: “People go abroad for work not because Latvia is not pleasant to them, but that is why, that they cannot, living and working here give support to a family. They are ready to suffer of deprivations, separation from a family and relatives, living, to provide the aged parents, whose beggarly pensions at the majority do not cover even elementary vital needs, and they need to provide study of children.” [9]

In conditions when just in two hours (time of flight from Latvia to the Great Britain), the Latvian unemployed come to the country where even the minimum salary in five and more times exceeded that, that he could receive in the homeland. It is very difficult convince him not to use this possibility, but achieve life improvement at home by class struggle. To these processes was added mentioned above “the credit fever” so-called. The methods used by large international banks, are familiar for the workers of the European countries and their life experience under capitalism helps to react to generous advertising promises of bankers more adeguate. Latvians (as well as inhabitants of other former socialist countries) have appeared psychologically defenceless before credit temptation. In economic revival of the first years after the enlistment into EU the considerable number of the people busy not only on civil service, in small and medium business, but, also at working branches-monopolists, transport or building had a possibility to get the apartment, expensive furniture or the new car. Certainly, to buy on credit, by speculatively steeped estimations on residence objects, and on complicated and severe payment terms. But, then it seemed to these people, that the delights of «consumer society» and “equal possibilities” of modern capitalism promised them come true. Attempts to explain them a falsity of similar deception, danger of hit in bankers nets or, especially, pointing on an economic situation lameness in the country, were not perceived at all.

A substance of public consciousness compound that circumstance to, that the active life now living the generation which was not knowing real socialism, its blessings and the guarantees, grown in wildness of the initial stage of the capitalist way restoration, generated, particularly, under influence false bourgeois propagation. For example, among intermediate school pupils quiz (young men of 17-19 years) it was found out, that at an estimation of their relation to base sociopolitical and ethical concepts, to third of participants positively estimate concepts “socialism”, “solidarity”, “altruism”, but thus negatively – “communism” or “collectivism”...

It shows serious problems in understanding of society life bases by young generation, contradictions in their opinions and belief. On the one hand, on the basis of senior family members stories, acquaintance to objective sources of the information, a lot, connected with “socialism” concept, does not cause any negative emotions. On another hand, proceeding from the official ideology of the state expressed in the present textbooks maintenance and school history and public disciplines programs, political campaign in EU on communistic and Nazi ideology equalising, in witch forefront are the right Latvian politicians, there were certain vague negative imaginations about “communism” concept. Serious influence on people's behavior has rendered also mentioned destruction of the large industrial enterprises, and than dissociation. Even those actions like trade-union meetings and pickets with very soft and limited economic requirements, that took place in Latvia, show this dissociation. Practically all of them passed separately: teachers, physicians, peasants, police, workers of liquidated small self-managements acted with requirements of especially branch character and have never announced about any joint purposes. Thus it is necessary to pay attention at all mentioned groups of the dissatisfied, referred to non-productive, being on budgetary payments, spheres. It is possible to carry to manufacturers only the peasants-farmers undertaking the actions like overlapping of roads or “march of tractors” to Riga, that happened last winter. But also their requirements, on the one hand carried petty branch character, on another - they were expressed only in desire to receive the part of budgetary grants and in this plan a little differed from protesting state employees position. Thus it is necessary to mean, that concrete these farmers in the majority do not concern any more peasantry. Being owners of the large ground areas, and frequently also the processing enterprises owners, they own certain capitals, actively use wage labor and objectively are representatives of medium layer of rural bourgeoisie. Absence of solidarity affects practically any protest or counteraction to the politics of the right government. For example, during a referendum in 2008 on change of pension system parties in power managed to convince young workers not to participate in, as at storage system the increase in payments to present pensioners, ostensibly could damage their future savings. The referendum was failed because of a low voter’s presence.

Similar opposition of interests working in both, small and large rural and city hospitals, also schools was provoked at carrying out of “reforms” in education and public health services will certainly practice the future reductions of budgetary sphere in the crisis circumstances by right parties.

Сapitalist restoration weak link

Present social and economic situation in the world, aggravated with specific internal factors, already has led to loss of people's trust to a ruling layer in Latvia, and collision with police on January, 13th - only the first prevention of the power. In the nearest future it can affect political deal in the country radically. For the first time for two decades the left-centrist block “Consent Center” witch contain SPL, strongly wins first place in voters preferences. On European parliament elections the block has received two mandates, one of which has chairman of SPL Alfred Rubiks. During municipal elections «the Consent Center» has received the majority, in a number of self-managements, including (though and in a coalition from one of rights-centrist parties), in capital. There is a real possibility of reception of the majority or “blocking minority” by this block forces as a result of parliamentary elections. Thus, Latvia can become an original “weak link” among the countries of the former socialist camp with constant right modes during last time the.

Such variant is possible due to following reasons. Having faced serious social and economic problems, the population of Latvia necessarily asks questions: why it has happened, who is guilty also how to solve the situation? The answer about the guilty one is obvious, even to layers witch are absolutely apolitical or loyally adapted to the power people and social groups. In addition, right parties within the limits of dominating ideology of market liberalism cannot offer any distinct ways of exit from crisis. It starts to influence also the second ideological component of a present Latvian mode - nationalism. Tempted due time by it’s ideas (which were supported also by a number of measures of national protectionism, for example, in an education sphere or in personnel selection), people start to reflect that if ruling ones lied about “self-regulated market economy” or “social justice under capitalism” it is probable that they lied also about the threats proceeding from people of other nationality, culture and language. This understanding, if it comes at considerable number of representatives of working layers, is capable to overturn one of the main obstacles to solidarity in struggle for social system changing in Latvia - national dissociation. Realizing this, the right Latvian politicians recently displace accents from interethnic opposition in the country on searches of the external enemy. As that is selected the neighbor: Russian federation in which address are strewed political and historical reproaches and even material claims. At the heart of this policy lays concept as so-called “the Soviet occupation” and in Latvia even works the special state commission by damage estimation which, ostensibly, has been put by Soviet Union from 1940 to 1991! In the same direction operates the Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the right deputies of the European parliament from Latvia, achieving recognitions of communistic ideology criminal and equating it to the Nazi.

What is characteristic, these actions not only are not condemned by influential European social democratic, Christian Democrat or even by “socialist” parties, but also receive straight and clear support from them.

Besides, at political prospect estimation of Latvia it is necessary to keep in mind, that as a result of crisis and summing debts, its government has appreciably lost independence and abackground for maneuver at basic social and economic problems deciding.

Any government, including left one, regardless of level of support in the country, will face powerful pressure at once not only of local national-liberals, but also the right majority of EU, structures like IMF and the international capital.

Any results of social transformations realization in Latvia are possible only in the conditions of support of the international left and communistic movement of growth of its force and authority, solidarity in struggle against monopolies and the imperialistic unions in the crisis circumstances, unity of working class with other national layers. And finally - only in case of radical revolutionary changes the way to socialism on national and European level is possible.

[1] “Socialist Party of Latvia. History in documents”., 2006 p. 134

[2] ibidem. 534

[3] Program of national front of Latvia, Riga, avots 1989, p.16

[4] “Perspective tendentions of Latvian USSR population developing «, «Zinatne» 1986, table. 2-4

[5] “Socialist Party of Latvia. History in documents.,”, p. 68

[6] Lenin V.I. “About the slogan of United Stated of Europe” essays, Gov. Political publish. Moscow 1952, t. 21 p. 310

[7] “Socialist Party of Latvia. History in documents” p.191

[8] C. Marks “Capital”, C. Marks and F. Engels Essays, Gov. Political publish. Moscow 1961, t. 25 p. 485

[9] “Socialist Party of Latvia; “Materials of IX meeting”, Riga 2008 p. 4