100 years of women's liberation Soviet Central Asia, as well as regression and enslavement during the period of the establishment of capitalism

Socialist Movement of Kazakhstan

The great October socialist Revolution marked a watershed in the history of the peoples of Central Asia and Azerbaijan and, in particular, has radically changed the public and social status of women. The revolution tore from the shackles of the middle ages, the hopeless bondage and oppression of millions of women, Muslim and Asian peoples of the former tsarist Empire. In the history of this process of emancipation called "the Liberation of women of the East", which was attended by prominent party and political activist and leaders of Soviet Russia and the Comintern, as well as mass women's and youth organizations. Compared to the period of revolutionary upsurge and prosperity of the Soviet republics, the current time of the victory of the counterrevolution and the establishment of capitalism is accompanied by the revival of the most reactionary conservative patriarchal ideology, a new enslavement, and also an increase in the oppression and super exploitation of women and children. This shows again the importance for us this question in class the mobilization of women in their organizations, their involvement in fighting the trade unions and the ranks of the Communist and workers ' parties.

The liberating character of the revolution for women of the East

The October revolution of 1917 changed not just the political system but of the social order, practices of everyday life of people. The Soviet period was marked by a "radical" rethinking of childhood that was largely due to the program of the liberation and emancipation of women. The removal of women from the limited space of home and family naturally required a new understanding of reproductive labor, childcare and the new understanding of family.

Accordingly, the initial period of the Soviet regime was characterized by significant changes in the education system, protection of motherhood and childhood, development of children's institutions and organizations. The conditions facing women in different regions of the vast country, was different and imposes its own specifics on the official Bolshevik policy. Many institutions of the system created in the period of 20 years, continue to function so far, because it was seen frequently as a given, not a result of radical reforms of the Soviet period.

"Women of East" was defined as the most oppressed category in comparison with the European part of the USSR. The basis for this oppression was determined by the specificity of the local context: "In this respect, the women of Central Asia and Kazakhstan were oppressed in a greater degree than women in Central Russia, for the class, and domestic oppression here added on national oppression... the Woman was in the position of household items, clothes, private property of men. As a thing, bought and sold for dowry (ransom)". [1]

Many of the writings of the Soviet period, exploring the position of women in pre-Soviet Kyrgyzstan, there are negative trends as polygamy, sale of girls from an early age for dowry, the transfer of a woman by inheritance (after the death of her husband — his brother), kidnapping, beating, murder etc. All property and inheritance rights in the family were in the hands of her husband. The property of a deceased head of the family, who had no male heirs, was received in favor of the next of kin [2].

Moreover, until the establishment of Soviet power in Central Asia, the percentage of literacy was among the Tajiks 0,5; Kyrgyz — 0,6; Turkmen — 0,7; Uzbeks — 1,6; Kazakhs - 2.1%. Women-Kirgiz, able to read and write, are extremely rare [3]. According to the Soviet census of 1926, educated women-Kirgiz accounted for barely 0,3% [4].

Accordingly, the party documents since the mid 20-ies there is even a special designation for the campaign for "liberation of women of the East" — "hudjum" (Arab. "the offensive"). This campaign consisted, first of all, the elimination of women in public space, involvement in social and political work and production work, exemption from part of the care and concern for home, family and children. Often "hudzhum" is associated with such radical actions as public removing and burning the burqa as a "symbol of oppression and slavery."

12 Nov 1919 was created a Department on work among women (women's departments) at the Turkestan regional Committee of the Communist party. In the areas departments were created during 1919 and 1920. The functions of zhenotdel included raising the level of political consciousness, general literacy of the workers, peasants, Housewives, preparing them for activities in state and public institutions.

In 1918, in Pishpek was organized by the Union of Muslim women, bringing together girls and young women. Union members fought for the eradication of remnants of the old family household, against religion, for the elimination of social backwardness of women [5].

The first pioneers of mass women's movement among the Muslim and Asian peoples of the former empire were activists of the Communist party of Azerbaijan. According to Clara Zetkin, Ayna Sultanov together with Claudia Iskova stood at the head of the Communist work among Azerbaijani women. Lively, sharp mind, strong will, temperament and sensitivity to the way we live, which worried those around, exceptional erudition is amazing, what kind of person was this peasant girl!

No social movement is impossible without their release — and Ayna Sultanov creates the first in the East women's magazine "Shark Kadyny" ("Woman of the East"). Witnesses tell of the time that Lenin said: "Shark Kadyny" should become the center of the women's movement in the East." Ayna Sultanov and tried it. The magazine became a helper of women in their education, he contributed to the emancipation of the slave psychology, from the absolute power of religion.

The majority of Azerbaijani women have gradually begun to taste the opened their life to see a huge, hitherto unknown world. There were first hundreds, then thousands... of Course, they were called, and considered himself a Muslim, but what was happening around them and with them they took an increasingly prominent part, does not fit into the framework of Islamic norms and regulations. In fact, they are increasingly coming out from under the power of religion.

And in all the posts preparing women for a mass campaign for full emancipation — "hudjum". Who in 1929, is truly massive, this movement swept away many of the defensive fortifications and ramparts on his way. Of course, in the fact that there is economic basis for larger social change in the lives of Muslim women — was built new factories, became stronger collective, open schools and kindergartens. More and more women involved in public and industrial life.

Due to the fact that a large part of the population of Central Asia is rural and nomadic populations, respectively, required other forms of work than in the European part of the USSR. Thus, the widely used "red yurts". These yurts played as the literacy club, the reading room of the library, the advisory centre on various issues, lecture hall, medical and obstetric centre. Red yurts were also involved in organising women's cooperatives (crafts, sewing etc.). In 1925 on the territory of Kyrgyzstan were five mobile red yurts for nomad-women. Three yurts worked delegate meetings, which included a total of 63 women delegates [6].

The reactionary forces of the clergy, the landowners, the rich and the counter-revolutionary Basmachi (armed bands of the panislamists, the pan-turkists) has actively resisted the process of emancipation of women, organizing attacks on members of the Komsomol, the activists of the Communist party and participating in the movement of liberation from the home and religious slavery. Here only separate reports of the killings:

"In Karasu (near Osh) Basmachi caught two women activists who conducted a campaign for election of delegates to the Congress, was brutally murdered and the bodies hanged on a meat market" [7].

"22-year-old activist, delegate Alymkan Mamatkulov was killed by her husband directly into the judicial process in the analysis of their divorce case. She attended women's meeting in school literacy without the consent of her husband, who was severely beaten after each meeting. Unable to withstand such abuse, Alymkan sued for divorce where, during the meeting, the husband rushed to her with a dagger and killed her" [8].

"Member of the village Council Inebolu Garganeev was in charge of the red Yurt, attended educational program, was active among the women in the village of Kyzyl-Tuu in Kochkor parish. The husband and his relatives were very unhappy about it. Husband brutally beat her. Inebolu wrote about it in the newspaper and going to live with his parents, continued his studies and work. The husband waylaid her and killed, causing 14 wounds" [9].

"The involvement of girls and kyrgyz women in the school took place in very difficult conditions. Manaps (feodale-nobility), Baies (large owners) and clergy have developed an intensive campaign among the kyrgyz population, directed against the education of women. Recalls Tursun Usmanov, who worked some time in the South of Kyrgyzstan, once the robber bands attacked the school in the village Ichkilik Thuja-Mounsey parish, beat the students and some of the girls took with them," [10].

As you can see, the movement to liberate women from cultural, social, familial oppression was tempered by the terror of the reactionary forces. Despite this, the Bolsheviks paid special attention to the specifics of working with "women of the East" to strengthen their public policy position, removal from the private space of the family and the household. Obtained in this period, the right to education, work, etc have become an essential basis of women's emancipation, gradual change of their position in society.

For the Bolsheviks, it was important to also explain the purpose of the liberation of the women's movement, showing the necessity of social revolution. So Alexandra Kollontai addressed the women of the former tsarist Empire with the following words:

"Let's not get scared of women-mother, a Communist society is not going to take away children from their parents, to tear the infant from the breast or forcibly destroy the family. Nothing of the sort! It "will take" only "financial burden of raising children", the joy of paternity and maternity leave to those who are able to understand and feel these pleasures" [11].

The base of the system of protection of motherhood and childhood

In 1919, in Moscow, opened the first courses the organizers of maternity and infancy. In 1920 these courses already worked in nine major cities [12]. In 1922 in Moscow was created the scientific research Institute of maternity and infancy (then the Institute of Pediatrics). Institutions of the same profile were opened in Ukraine (Kiev and Kharkov), Azerbaijan (Baku), Kazakhstan (Alma-ATA) and in several cities in Russian Federation (Leningrad, Rostov, Sverdlovsk and others).

In the early 1920-ies the Department of maternity and infancy creates own publishing house, which publishes books and brochures in the millions. So, from 1926 to 1927 the total circulation of periodicals for the care of young children is 1.5 million copies. Given the fact that almost half of the female population is illiterate, printed propaganda is reinforced by the mass publication of posters, public speaking pediatricians, the establishment of "health corners" in the clubs and reading rooms [13].

In 1922, for 10 000 population in Kyrgyzstan accounted for 0.5 doctors. By 1940, this figure had increased to 3.8 doctors. Accordingly, in the pre-revolutionary level of medical care was quite low, and obstetric care was not practical at all.

Thus, in the 20s laid the Foundation for the development of the system of protection of motherhood and childhood, the first free child care, women's and children's consultations. However, in this period the number of such institutions was still so slight that one can hardly speak of a significant restructuring of the "everyday life" in this period. As the data show, more or less developed network of institutions for the protection of motherhood and childhood presented in the post-war period (late 40-ies). But it is important to emphasize that in this period laid the legislative Foundation of such a system.

The decree of the Council of People's Commissars (SNK) on February 4, 1919 established a special body to coordinate the activities of all departments and organizations for the protection of childhood — the Council for the protection of children, which was later reorganized into a Commission to improve the lives of children (Demmissie under the Central Executive Committee - VTSIK). Earlier Decree SNK from January 9, 1918, was founded the Commission for minors. The powers of these bodies was part of the compulsory national publication of regulations relating to the protection of children's health, nutrition, logistics, etc., as well as their implementation [14].

The Constitution of RSFSR of 1918 and 1936 declared the separation of the school from the Church and allowed the children to obtain free education. Important were the "Statute on the unified labor school of the RSFSR" (published October 16, 1918), under which was created a single work 9-summer school consisting of two stages, compulsory for children and adolescents aged 8-17 years, with free and joint education of children of both sexes in their native language. With the 1923-24 school year in rural areas based on the school stage I began to have school peasant youth (SHKM) with a three-year period of training in the 5-7th classes [15].

Many of the measures taken in the Soviet period, has had a radical impact on the position of women in society in Soviet Kazakhstan. In the early period of Soviet power women gained such rights as the right to education, work, own property, etc., have formed the basis of the system of protection of motherhood and childhood.

The course for the liberation of women of the East, equality with men, the prohibition to close, sell, brides, access to education and professions - probably one of the main achievements of the civilizing policy of the Soviet Union in particular and the world socialist women's movement in general. Unfortunately, this is the main achievement in our modern world is gradually eroding. This is due to the establishment of the capitalist economy, with the return of the wild forms of exploitation and oppression and even the spread of slavery and other forms of enslavement, from which most affected women and children.

The situation of women in Kazakhstan and Central Asia after the establishment of capitalism

Achievements of the USSR in the protection of the rights of women, mothers and children is undeniable. Together with the new state women awakening of the revolution, passed through all the ordeals of the great Patriotic war, defended on equal terms with men, the independence of his country, became the greatest example of those changes in the once-closed semi-feudal society. Moreover, these achievements are more significant in the backdrop of the current market experiments, the total collapse of social guarantees and gains of October, which was seriously damaged in the first place women. Now even old the 8th of March in Kazakhstan takes on its original class and revolutionary meaning.

In the world capitalist system women are really oppressed as they have less than men for equal work in different industries, are subjected to sex discrimination and sexual exploitation, in addition they bear the burden of family work and domestic service for their husbands and raising children. The most ugly forms of the oppression of women flourished in the countries of the former Soviet Central Asia. Today, as in the early twentieth century, according to Lenin, many women were "domestic slaves", especially when young girls are once again driven into the position of dumb cattle.

The market capitalist reforms were carried out most aggressively and rapidly in Kazakhstan, which was introduced by the new Labour Code and the amended social legislation, which deprived women of many guarantees, benefits, privileges, paid leave to care for children. Throughout the republics of former Soviet Central Asia were undone free kindergartens, eliminated many preschools, houses of culture, houses of pioneers for children disbanded Soviet women's organizations.

In Kazakhstan in 2012 passed a new pension reform, which has led to the increase in the retirement age for women from 58 to 63 years. Only through rallies, protests and petitions, President Nazarbayev, for fear of the development of the protest movement of women, was forced to defer implementation of the reforms until January 1, 2018.

Women become victims of health care reform in Kazakhstan. So with the introduction of the mandatory health insurance system of free service deprived of most women since they make up the lion's share of "self-employed", of which there are over three million people. The fact that self-employed have to pay tax to get medical insurance, which is the bulk of can not pay.

In 2016 in Kazakhstan wages of women and men by employment sectors differs considerably, according to a study portal Ranking.kz [16]. Last year, the data suggests that women are worse to be hired and paid less, men get more in almost all spheres of activity. The difference in wages comes to 42%, the level of official unemployment among women is 5.5% versus 4.4% in men.

The curator of the Almaty hub of the Global Shapers initiative of the world economic forum Gaukhar Nursha cites the International Labour Organization, according to which female unemployment in Kazakhstan has already reached 6.1 percent. Even less encouraging fact that, for example, in rural areas, an unemployed woman, as a rule, has neither higher education nor work experience.

Women in Kazakhstan, and "self-employed", says software specialist multi-country offices the structure of "UN women" in Central Asia Ms. Nargis Azizova. "Among those employed under the contract of civil legal nature for the provision of services, the number of women in 2016 was 1, 250 persons, men, 696 people. The number of women working from private individuals (domestic workers) in 2016 amounted to 290 068 people, which is almost 40,000 more than men," gave examples of the expert [17].

In addition, for our Republic uneven distribution of men and women at different levels within the same occupation and in different ways. "Among the specialists of the highest qualification level the proportion of women is 65.4%, and men – 34.6 per cent" the expert stressed. According to the forecasts of researchers from the world economic forum, based on the current state of progress in gender equality in the world gender gap in Central Asia can only be overcome through 149 years.

Regression is affected not only employment, but also family relationships, and resulted in the return of women's subordination to men and women parents. Since the 90-ies in Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan began to practice forced extradition of girls and young women for a husband for dowry, spread the violent abduction of brides, which ended with the beating and sexual slavery. Significantly increased the percentage of illiterate women. In Tajikistan, for example, a whole generation of girls 18 – 20 years of which more than 50% did not go to school, and was a housewife or worked in the fields.

The situation is exacerbated by the growth of religious obscurantism, which further contributes to the enslavement of women in the former Soviet Central Asia. This is especially true for Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and parts of Uzbekistan. The everyday phenomenon is polygamy, and in the Kazakhstan part of the bourgeoisie is practicing the practice of keeping young girls and girls, performing the role of additional wives.

Such wild principles cultivated from above by the ruling class, deliberately implanted through the preaching at the official level, the national-conservative and patriarchal ideas. The current elite in power, is also trying to isolate the peoples of the former Soviet Central Asia, through the introduction of Latin into national languages and through deprivation of the young generation access to the Soviet cultural, scientific and literary heritage. This, of course, accompanied by a general fall in the level of education of young people and women

The issue of forced labour of women and children

The most significant factor in the oppression of women and children is the use of forced labor in the cotton and tobacco fields of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. According to various estimates, in Kazakhstan every year is from 300 to 400 thousand seasonal workers from neighbouring Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and among internal migrants, among which are the bulk of women and children who receive a salary two or three times less than men and live in appalling conditions while working 14-16 hours a day, seven days a week.

The most infamous is the institution of slavery, when seasonal workers and labor migrants forcibly held in the households of farmers and landowners. Also confirmed the active use of forced labor of women and children the reports of Western human rights organizations, international trade unions and observers of the International Labour Organization, showing the prevalence of this phenomenon in Uzbekistan.

"Uzbek women and children subjected to sex trafficking in the middle East, Eurasia and Asia, as well as in local brothels, clubs, and private residences. Uzbek men and, to a lesser extent, women subjected to forced labor in Kazakhstan, in the construction, oil and gas, agriculture, retail and food sectors," the report notes human rights defenders "human rights watch" [18].

This continues a trend over the last five years. As noted in the report, the government of Uzbekistan is making serious efforts to eliminate these phenomena. Most interesting is that of forced or even slave labor in the cotton fields is carried out in the framework of joint projects of the world Bank with the government of Uzbekistan! Naturally, government officials and managers of the world Bank hastened to conceal these facts and to say that at the moment all problems are overcome.

"In 2015, the first time it became possible to monitor the use of forced labor of women in the cotton industry of Uzbekistan", — said World Bank regional Director for Central Asia Saroj Kumar JHA, whose words are in the press release. In his opinion, "this reflects significant progress in our long-term strategic relations with the Uzbek authorities" [19].

However, forced labor was widely used in the cotton harvest in 2016. The government continued to require that farmers and local officials complied with state regulations on the production of cotton and set low prices for cotton and for payment of hired workers, which led to large-scale mobilization of the population.

So In a 115-page report, "We can't abandon the cotton harvest. Forced and child labour associated with the investment projects of the world Bank Group in Uzbekistan" in detail told about how the Uzbek authorities coerced students, teachers, health workers, other state employees, private sector employees, and in some cases, and children to pick cotton in 2015 and 2016, and weeding the fields and planted cotton in the spring of 2016. Authorities threatened to fire people, the termination of social benefits, dismissal of students from classes and exclusion from universities if they refuse to work on cotton [20].

"The world Bank's mission is to fight poverty, the fact is that people living in poverty are the most vulnerable to forced and child labour in Uzbekistan, — said Jessica Evans, senior researcher "human rights watch" on business and human rights and one of the authors of the report. — World Bank should stop financing projects that strengthen the system of forced labour in the country, and instead to give priority to initiatives aimed at addressing socio-economic needs of those living in poverty" [21].

A similar pattern was observed in tobacco plantations in Kazakhstan, which serve well-known American companies, including tobacco giant "Philip Morris International" [22]. It turns out that a hotbed of forced labor of women and children in the republics of former Soviet Central Asia are the international imperialist centres and institutions such as the world Bank, the international Monetary Fund and transnational corporations and companies, both Western and Chinese, who are interested in cheap labor, high profit rates and low demands in the sphere of working conditions.

The glaring facts of excess of exploitation of women took place not only in agriculture but also in the mining industry the same Kazakhstan, where in the West a Chinese company ("Aktobe") in the end refused to pay compensation for the acquired diseases of women as a result of working in harmful working conditions and at constant emissions of methane and hydrogen sulfide in the gas and oil fields

All these facts indicate that the establishment of capitalism in the countries of the former Soviet Central Asia turned into a regression in all spheres and areas of public life, led to the social catastrophe, to the processes of de-industrialization, the outflow of the population and able-bodied citizens of these countries and condemned to poverty and slavery of millions of workers, including a significant number of women and children.

The need to overcome the dictatorship

The problem of the formation of the women's movement in the countries of the former Soviet Central Asia and the creation of organized resistance to oppression lies in the fact that now there is virtually no mass organizations that represent the interests of women workers or the oppressed women experiencing labour and sexual exploitation or forced labor. The dictatorial regimes of the countries of the former Soviet Central Asia do not allow their formation.

Sometimes the facts of slavery and forced labour of women and children in a variety of industries reveal only the human rights Association and the so-called non-governmental organizations, representing various currents of bourgeois feminism, which data can also be biased and do not cover the social causes of this phenomenon.

Independent trade Unions in Kazakhstan, universally eradicated, trade unionists, many of whom are women, are subjected to repression and persecution. The rest of the organization calling themselves "trade unions" are pro-government structures and do not notice a problem over the exploitation of women in industry and agriculture. Trade unions as such also do not exist in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan.

To this we must add the prohibition at different times of the activities of the Communist parties in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan or their emasculation and subordination to the ruling elite in Tajikistan and partly in Kyrgyzstan. The ruling class of the countries of the former Soviet Central Asia, deliberately removed the Communist party from the political field in the ' 90s and in 2000-ies, as the only factor capable of uniting broad sections to counter market reforms, and actual destruction of the social assurance system.

Kazakh, Uzbek, Tajik, Turkmen, Kyrgyz and the bourgeoisie the entire state apparatus are the main conductors of a policy of transnational corporations and different imperialist centres. This dark force did not know and knows no laws except the most profit. She did not recognize and does not recognize any national, cultural or ethical barriers in search of cheap labor, sectors of application, capital, cheap raw materials, new markets. No such crimes, which she would not have gone in achieving their goals.

All this proves once again the inability of progressive development of Kazakhstan and countries of the former Soviet Central Asia on a capitalist basis. Barbarism can be countered only by socialism. Therefore, the struggle for socialism is the primary goal of our organization. We are in this situation understand and affirm that social and political liberation of women is impossible without their involvement in the political struggle against the current bourgeois dictatorships, without their participation in the creation of new structures of the labor movement and in the process of revival of the Communist and workers ' parties.

We also understand the importance of women's networks within organizations to protect the rights of teachers, doctors and public offices of government efforts to privatize the social sector and to undertake massive cuts in the social movements against the increase of prices for utilities and for the nationalization, under the control of the residents of public utilities, as well as movements to protect the rights of insolvent borrowers of mortgage loans.

Important is now and the organization wide campaigns with the involvement of women against anti-social reforms of governments for further privatization and commercialization of the health system, education, the elimination of child benefits, raising the retirement age and the further development of private funded pension system. Participation in this competition contributes to the eradication of the ideas of liberal feminism and market illusions.

On the other hand, we must constantly show the masses in their propaganda a blatant contrast between the achievements of the Great October Socialist revolution and the Soviet Union, including in the protection of motherhood and childhood and women's liberation, with the current abyss of oppression and slavery, to justify the necessity of the revolutionary struggle with the power of capital, in Kazakhstan and in the countries of the former Soviet Central Asia!

[1] Tatybekov J. S. the Great October revolution and women of Kyrgyzstan. Frunze: Kyrgyzstan, 1975. 12-13.

[2] Tatybekov J. S. the Great October revolution and women of Kyrgyzstan. 172 p.; Karakeeva S. the Formation of socialist relations in the family and life of the Kirghiz // the establishment of the socialist relations in Kyrgyzstan and the Communist education of the youth / Institute of history, Academy of Sciences of the Kirghiz SSR. Frunze: Ilim, 1978. P. 148-156; S. Lyubimov As living and working women of Central Asia / library workers and peasant / Series "Soviet East". No. 1. M.–L.: State publishing house, 1925. 30 p.; Nuhart A. the woman of the East / library workers and peasant women. M.–L.: State publishing house, 1927. 92 p.

[3] Daniyarov S. S. Realization of Lenin's program of cultural revolution in Central Asia. Frunze: Kyrgyzstan, 1972. 264 p.

[4] Kanimetov A. the Development of public education in Soviet Central Asia. Frunze: Mektep, 1969. S. 33.

[5] Karakeev S. the Formation of socialist relations in the family and life of the Kyrgyz. P.149.

[6] Nuhart A. Yurt-dispersal. To work women's red Yurt. M: Centrist, 1929. 56 p.; On the work of the red Yurt. 22 Jun 1925

[7] Tatybekov J. S. the Great October revolution and women of Kyrgyzstan. P.25.

[8] Tatybekov J. S. the Emancipation of women the Kirghiz of the Great October Socialist Revolution (1917-1936.). P. 62.

[9] Ibid. P. 104.

[10] Tatybekov J. S. the Great October revolution and women of Kyrgyzstan. P. 29.

[11] Kollontai, A. the Family and the Communist state, 1918. P. 21.

[12] National economy of the USSR 1922-1982 / CSB. M.: finances and statistics, 1982. S. 403-404.

[13] Tatybekov J. S. the Emancipation of women the Kirghiz of the Great October Socialist Revolution (1917-1936.). Pp. 89, 95.

[14] Fadeev, A. V. Formation of system of protection of motherhood and childhood and infant mortality in the USSR during the 20's- early 30-ies of XX century // 12th international scientific-practical conference on the history of medicine and pharmacy: collected articles / Ed. Coll.: E. A. Valchuk (resp. ed.), E. M. Tishchenko (resp. ed.). Grenoble: GMU, 2012. S. 296-297.

[15] Socio-legal status of the child // children of the land of the Soviets: 1917-1941 (anthropological): a reader / Ed. edited by E. G. Ponomarev. Stavropol: publishing house of Saratov state pedagogical University, 2010. P. 8-26.

[16] The study of the analytical portal Ranking.kz

[17] Research information-analytical portal "Power fault" (www.vlast.kz )

[18] The report, "human rights watch": "We can't abandon the cotton harvest" Forced and child labour associated with the investment projects of the world Bank Group in Uzbekistan (www.hrw.org )

[19] The report, "human rights watch": "Uzbekistan: forced labour is associated with World Bank projects Systematic violations based on the cotton sector of the country" (www.hrw.org )

[20] The report, "human rights watch": "We can't abandon the cotton harvest" Forced and child labour associated with the investment projects of the world Bank Group in Uzbekistan. (www.hrw.org)

[21] There

[22] Research information-analytical portal "the Country without tobacco" (www.stoptabak.org )